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LEAD


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Health concerns of ingredient
About the ratings
Canceryes
Developmental & reproductive toxicityyes
Allergies & immunotoxicityyes
Other HIGH concerns: Persistence and bioaccumulation, Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive), Enhanced skin absorption, Occupational hazards, Use restrictions
Other MODERATE concerns: Neurotoxicity, Endocrine disruption
Other LOW concerns: Ecotoxicology

About the ratings

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer

Synonym(s): C.I. 77575; GLOVER; KS-4; LEAD (ACGIH) ; LEAD FLAKE; LEAD INORGANIC; LEAD S2; OLOW (POLISH) ; OMAHA & GRANT

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Type of Concern Reference
Known human reproductive toxicantEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling
Possible human developmental toxicantCalifornia EPA Proposition 65
Human reproductive toxicant - strong evidenceCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Human nervous system toxicant - strong evidenceCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Human reproductive toxicant - strong evidence
Human developmental toxicant - strong evidence
Limited evidence of developmental toxicityEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicityNational Library of Medicine HazMap
Human developmental toxicant - moderate evidenceCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Human reproductive toxicant - moderate evidenceCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Human nervous system toxicant - moderate evidenceChemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
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Cancer

Type of Concern Reference
Possible human carcinogenEPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Possible human carcinogenInt'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
Possible human carcinogenNTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th Edition
Possible human carcinogenCalifornia EPA Proposition 65
Cancer - strong evidence
Limited evidence of carcinogenicityAmer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicityInt'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
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Neurotoxicity

Type of Concern Reference
Strong evidence of human neurotoxicityCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Strong evidence of human neurotoxicityChemicals known to be neurotoxic to humans
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Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Type of Concern Reference
Known human respiratory toxicantEPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Known human renal toxicantCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Known human hematologic toxicantCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Known human sense organ toxicantCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Known human cardiovascular toxicantCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Known human musculoskeletal toxicantCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Possible human cardiovascular toxicantCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Possible human renal toxicantCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Possible human hematologic toxicantCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
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Allergies/immunotoxicity

Type of Concern Reference
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity
Human immune toxicant - moderate evidenceCHE Toxicant and Disease Database

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Type of Concern Reference
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humansEPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
Persistent or bioaccumulative and moderate to high toxicity concern in humansEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlifeCanada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlifeGreat Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTs
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlifeEPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)
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Endocrine disruption

Type of Concern Reference
Limited evidence of endocrine disruptionCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
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Occupational hazards

Type of Concern Reference
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low dosesEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling
Strong evidence of occupational hazardsEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling

Ecotoxicology

Type of Concern Reference
Wildlife and environmental toxicityEuropean Union - Classification & Labelling
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Data gaps

Type of Concern Reference

Enhanced skin absorption

Type of Concern Reference
Suspected nano-scale ingredients with potential to absorb into the skinNanomaterial Database

Government, industry, academic studies and classifications

government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)

references

government/industry list/academic study reference
European Union - Classification & LabellingCPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - CarcinogensACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
Canada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics IngredientsHealth Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
CHE Toxicant and Disease DatabaseCHE (The Collaborative on Health and the Environment). 2006. Toxicant and Disease Database.
EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Environment Canada Domestic Substance ListEC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine SystemIllinois EPA (Illinois Environmental Protection Agency). 2000. Preliminary list of chemicals associated with endocrine system effects in animals and humans (*) or in vitro (+). In EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) 2000. Handbook for Non-Cancer Health Effects Valuation, Appendix C.
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
European Commission on Endocrine DisruptionEU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
European Union - Banned or Restricted in CosmeticsEC (European Commission of the European Union). 1999-2006. Enterprise Directorate-General Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics. The rules governing cosmetic products in the European Union, Volume 1, "Cosmetics legislation."
European Union - Water Framework DirectiveEU (European Union). 2000. Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC ) - integrated river basin management for Europe. List of priority substances.
EPA Hazardous Air PollutantsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
National Library of Medicine HazMapNLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - CarcinogensIARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
EPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide IngredientsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987 & 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients in Pesticide Products - Categorized List of Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients.
Nanomaterial DatabaseNanoWerk. 2007. Nanomaterial Database. Available online: http://www.nanowerk.com/phpscripts/n_dbsearch.php
Chemicals known to be neurotoxic to humansGrandjean P and PJ Landrigan. 2006. Developmental neurotoxicity of industrial chemicals. Lancet. 2006 Dec 16;368(9553):2167-78.
NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th EditionNTP (National Toxicology Program). 2005. Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
Our Stolen Future Endocrine DisruptorsColborn T, D Dumanoski, JP Myers. 2006. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. Updated from original listing in "Our Stolen Future" (1996).
Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)EC (Environment Canada). 1994. Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). ARET substance list of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals.
Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTsGreat Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy). 1997. Canada-United States Strategy for the Virtual Elimination of Persistent Toxic Substances in the Great Lakes. Appendix I - Level 1 and Level 2 substances.
EPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1998. Resource Conservatin and Recovery Act (RCRA) Waste Minimization Program - priority chemicals for elimination or reduction.
EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTsEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
California EPA Proposition 65California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.

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